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제3권 1호 (2001년)
작성자 관리자 등록일 2013-08-22 21:18:52 조회수 4,655
 Rationale and Guidelines for Design of Web-Based Cooperative Learning

Young Hwan Kim (Pusan National University)
Kwang Hui Kim (Pusan National University)

The purpose of this paper is to explore a rationale for combining cooperative learning with Web-based instruction and to outline some design guidelines for Web-based cooperative learning. The key components of cooperative learning which are proven by findings can be positive interdependence, individual accountability, and cooperative skills. Though the WBI have advantage, self-directed learning environment of WBI does not always result in effective learning. Providing information and knowledge for Web pages alone is not sufficient for educational effects, so that the components of cooperative learning in classroom should be applied to the WBI. Besides, Web-based cooperative learning should demand other needs. Team design, authentic tasks and motivation, cooperative skills, opportunity for Web-publishing and technical support are necessary for Web-based cooperative learning. The most important component in Web-based cooperative learning is communication skills through Web-tools as cooperative skills in the classroom, which are the basic vehicle to two essential concepts for the 21st century education-sharing and caring.

The effect of embedded self-regulated learning strategies in Computer-Based Instruction (CBI)

Hong Kyun Park (LearnByClick, Inc.)

The purpose of this study is to examine the differences in college level students' achievement by embedded self-regulated learning strategies in Computer-Based Instruction (CBI). Seventy-seven college students in an introductory course in technology were randomly assigned to the control group and treatment group. The treatment was embedded self-regulated learning strategies. Three dependent variables were students' achievement test score, students’ use of self-regulated learning strategies, and student’s perception of metacognitive awareness. The results of this study indicated that embedded self-regulated learning strategies improve student’s achievement, use of self-regulated learning strategies and student’s perception of metacognitive awareness. The study concluded that embedded self-regulated learning strategies were found to be an effective way to increase student’s achievement, use of self-regulated learning, and metacognitive awareness. Results, implications for instructional design, and recommendations for future studies are provided.

An investigation into the relationships between faculty members' perception of WBI attributes and environmental support to the adoption of WBI

Soon-shik Suh (Choonchun National University of Education)

Although Web-based instruction (WBI) is believed to have great potential for providing an avenue to change the structure of higher education institutions and the integration of WBI is regarded as natural and inevitable, there is no guarantee that faculty members would use WBI enough to justify the efforts and the cost of developing it. The intent of this study was to identify the current extent of Web-based instruction (WBI) use among faculty members of the higher education, and to investigate the relationships between the identified four predictor variables (relative advantage, compatibility, subjective norm, and environmental support) and their current extent of WBI use after initial adoption of WBI.
The results showed that the percentage of faculty members at the utilization level of WBI use was more than that of faculty members at the integration level. In other words, the findings of the study showed that WBI has still been underutilized in teaching and learning in higher education and that there is a discrepancy between the actual and the potential extents of WBI integration. Two variables of perceived relative advantage and subjective norm emerged as being significantly correlated with and as predictors of WBI use. The results of the study generally concurred with Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory revealing that perceived relative advantage of WBI is a significant predictor of levels of use. This result is also congruent with Theory of Reasoned Action of which subjective norm is an important component.

Information Seeking Performance on the World Wide Web: The Effects of Menu Design

Byeong-Min Yu (The Institute of Asia-Pacific Education Developmen)

As the Web becomes more popular, the interest in effective navigation is increasing. Menu design is becoming a central issue of human computer interface design as the focus of computer applications moves from the computer as a machine to the human as a user. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three different Web menu designs (simple selection menu, global and local navigation menu, and a pull-down menu) on the user’s attitude and information seeking performance. Three Cyber-shopping mall Web sites were developed for the experiment. These Web sites had same content and a constant information struture, but each had a different menu design. The results showd that the effect of each menu design was not the same on search and browsing performance. Participants performed better in searching with the pull-down menu than the global and local navigation menu and the simple selection menu, while their browsing task was faster with the global and local navigation menu as well as the pull-down menu than the simple selection menu. There was no significant difference among three menu designs in terms of users’ perception on appeal of the web site and disorientation.

A Study on the Relationship between Self-Regulated Learning Strategy and Collaborative Learning, and Its Intervening Factors in Asynchronous Learning Networks

Gyeoung hee Lee (Daejin Universiity)
Euikil Lee (SUNY Albany)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive and metacognitive Self-Regulated Learning(SRL) strategies, instructional effectiveness, and gender on the collaborative learning in an asynchronous distance class. The three main questions are as follows: 1) How do students use SRL strategies in an online class? 2) What is the relation among gender, SRL strategy uses, and perceived instructional effectiveness? 3) What is the relative strength of the three independent variables as predictors of collaborative learning? The subjects of this study were a group of graduate students enrolled in a graduate course offered in the spring of 2001 at a State University of New York, Albany, U.S.A.. They responded to the Web-based online questionnaire in the end of the semester. The questionnaire included a demographic information and an open-ended question plus three different inventories: Self-Regulated Learning Strategies Inventory(SRLSI), Instructional Effectiveness Inventory (IEI), and Collaborative Learning Inventory (CLI). The data collected from the subjects were coded and analyzed using the SPSS statistical package. The results showed that all the three independent variables, gender, SRL, and instructional effectiveness together contributed to the dependent variable significantly. There, however, was only one predictor explained the criterion variable significantly: perceived instructional effectiveness. The SRL strategy almost failed to explain the dependent variable. The reasons for these results and the direction of the further studies were discussed.

Implementing a Learning-by-Web-Design Project in Higher Education

Byung-Ro Lim (Indiana University)

Learning is an active process of constructing knowledge by learners through interactions with the environment. Technology helps students build their understanding and makes a learning-by-design approach more effective and feasible. While using the web in educational context is becoming popular, a few study focus on a learning-by-web-design approach. This study explores the issues and difficulties in implementing learning by web design. In a graduate-level course on learning theory at a large, mid-western university in United States of America, students conducted web design projects and developed web sites as a way to learn learning theory. While the web design projects were successful in general, some issues and challenges were found: motivation, group collaboration, content structure, and balanced learning of both design skills and contents. This study shows some of the strengths and weaknesses of a learning-by-web-design approach, and recommends instructors and learners with strategies for enhancing meaningful teaching and learning experiences.

Students’ perception on e-learning at tertiary level education

Okhwa Lee (Chungbuk National University)
Yeonwook Im (Hanyang Cyber University)

This paper reports the results from a survey on students’ perception on e-learning at tertiary level education. The questionnaire included items in four categories: learner inputs, management related factors, learning materials, and learning outcomes. The resulting data set includes the responses from 609 students who were enrolled in one or more online courses in undergraduate or graduate schools at the time of survey. The participants may or may not have previous experience with e-learning.
The analysis of the survey items on learning outcomes reveals that students with previous experience in e-learning tend to spend more hours for courses than students in traditional classroom courses and are generally satisfied with the quality of cyber education, which lead them to take e-learning more again in the future. The e-learning courses offered by tertiary level educational institutes seem to be well established and well received among students. Students felt that there is a need for regulations on student numbers and independent outside audit.
There are a few issues to be taken care of, however, such as the conflict between the demand for lower tuition level in cyber education and the demand for better contents and management and the control of class size that translate into higher education costs per student. The solution to this conflict seems to be one of the important keys to the continuation of the new trend of cyber education. One way out of this dilemma would be the packaging of e-learning as a solution to the weaknesses of traditional classroom learning such as time and space limitations and costly interactive multimedia implementation rather than as a cheap substitute to the face-to-face classroom learning.
Students liked all types of e-learning courses almost equally but there was a slight preference for question/answer and homework/discussion type courses over courses with fancy audio-visual technologies. This calls for more careful studies but one of the probable implications is that interaction from the faculty members and tutors are more important than expensive embedded technologies per se such as video streaming. Students did not show strong preference regarding subject areas suitable for e-learning, which means literature and social science courses are equally well received as natural or engineering courses.

The Effects of Different Concept Mapping Techniques on College-level Writing

Il-Hyun Jo (Credu Corporation)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the different effects of two concept mapping techniques on student verbal recall performance and critical essay performance. Three sections of a college freshmen English composition course were randomly assigned to one of the three treatments-one in which each student constructed concept maps using link and labels, a second in which students used links only, or a third in which student did not use concept maps. All of the 43 students who participated in the study were required to read two argumentative articles and to compose essays that analyzed the two articles. No significant differences were found in either the overall quality of the essays produced or the verbal recall of the student measured by multiple choice test. Interpretation of the unexpected results was discussed. Need for future investigation to further pursue this line of inquiry and to explore strategies of promoting student motivation in concept mapping was also suggested.

Critical Design Considerations for Effective Computer-Based Instructional Simulations

Wook Choi (Inchon National University of Education)

The purpose of this study is to suggest a model that prescribes the main principles for designing successful computer-based instructional(CBI) simulations. It identifies important features and their components in developing effective CBI simulations. In attempting to specify which critical considerations and principles will be most fruitful for the construction of CBI simulations, I find it useful to identify the major design principles of the simulations in terms of the following eight main features: 1) sequence, 2) operating procedures, 3) characteristics of participant(s), 4) particiapnt activities, 5) characteristics of simulated objects, 6) level of fidelity, 7) time frame, 8) noncomputer activities. Specific descriptions of the elements for each feature are shown with related examples.

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