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제2권 1호 (2000년)
작성자 관리자 등록일 2013-08-22 21:14:31 조회수 4,128
Theoretical Foundations Of Conducting Needs Analysis

James A. Pershing (Indiana University)
Sung Heum Lee (Kookmin University)
Jaesam Chung (Ewha Womans University)

Needs analysis is a systematic process for ascertaining performance goals, identifying discrepancies between performance goals and the status quo, establishing priorities for action, and selecting interventions to improve performance in organizations. The purposes of this article are to clarify the basic terminology of needs analysis, to propose a framework for conducting needs analyses, and to discuss trends and issues in needs analysis as they apply to improving performance in organizations. The authors explore basic terminology such as need, needs assessment, needs analysis, training requirements analysis, and needs analysis plan. Needs analysis is effective if it successfully addresses an organizational need that results in improved organizational performance. In order to carry out effective needs analysis the authors propose a framework for conducting needs analysis in organizations that includes: perception analysis, performance analysis, and feasibility analysis. By expanding the perspectives for conducting needs analysis and using a more comprehensive approach, the analyst will be more effective in solving performance problems and realizing business opportunities in the organizations they serve.

Theoretical underpinnings for structuring the classroom as self-regulated learning environment

Heeok Heo (Sunchon National University)

The tremendous explosion and changes of information and knowledge confronting people in our knowledge driven society encourages them to continually adapt to new knowledge and skills throughout the stages of their life. The rate of change is creating and accelerating a need for new knowledge and skills. It also becomes evident that individuals will have to think of learning as a continuous process rather than something completed in a fixed number of years in school. Self-regulated learning skill is one essential skill that individuals should possess in this era as well as an important aspect of learners’ academic achievement in the classroom settings. The current school settings have many aspects to be observed and analyzed for self-regulated learning, such as the learners and teachers of classrooms, learning tasks, resources and tools, and physical conditions. There are a lot of effort to develop and teach self-regulated learning skills, even though those have different approaches and progress. The purpose of this paper is to explore the theoretical underpinnings relating to self-regulated learning and arrange them to suggest structuring the current classroom as a self-regulated learning environment.

The effect of levels of learner self-direction on the interaction and satisfaction in the Web-Based Discussion Learning

Youngsoo Kim (Ewha Womans University)
Younghee Kim
Yeunhee Jung

This study aims to examine the effect of the levels of learner self-direction on the interaction and satisfaction in the Web-Based Discussion Learning.
The subjects for the study were 24 undergraduate students. Based on the level of self-direction measured by Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale, these subjects were assigned into two groups: one group including 11 students with the high level of self-direction and the other consisting of 13 student with the low level. Concurrent with asynchronous online discussions, the subjects received face-to-face classes once a week.
To undertake the quantitative analysis of students’ interactions, the research enumerated the number of messages that the students uploaded on four discussion topics. For the qualitative analysis of collected data, Henri’s (1992) Content Analysis Model was adopted. The follow-up survey was undertaken to analyze the students’ satisfaction with the discussions.
The results of statistical analyses indicated that: (i) the group of students with the high level of self-direction devoted to a greater number of interactions in the discussions than those with a lower level; (ii) the Content Analysis of two groups’ messages showed the difference only in a metacognitive dimension; and (iii) the high level of satisfaction was seen in highly self-directed. In conclusion, this study suggests that learner self-direction has an effect on activities in online discussion.

College Participants’ Interactions in Small Group Mathematics Problem Solving Sessions via a Virtual Environment

Kwansik Rho (Hanyang University)

This study observed and documented college students’ mathematics function concept learning process in six problem-solving sessions that integrated a Multi-user Object Oriented system with web conferencing boards simulating a virtual classroom. Four undergraduates were teamed into pairs and solved function problems in the virtual classroom over one month period. The study found that every student’s notion of function changed although student R’s notion changed negatively. Although all students felt confident and comfortable working in the virtual environment, they preferred to solve the problems in face to face. Students played the main role in the pair problem solving sessions. Students with introversion preference were more active than students with extroversion preference. Students solved function concept problems exchanging facts, opinions, justifications, and clarifications indicating that they solved the problems based on their deeper thought process. Students with thinking preference produced more messages on fact, opinion, and justification. Due to the unique environment of a MOO, many messages for facilitating problem solving process were to provide visual cues to others. Most of the messages on the web conferencing board were on subject matter justifying and clarifying their ideas or opinions. Finally, this type of virtual environment showed its potential for small group mathematics learning environments.

Exploring and understanding cultural diversities at open and distance education

Sung-Ho Kwon (Hanyang University)

The interplay between globalization and localization is an increasingly prominent theme in open and distance education literature. As communication technologies bridge geographical distance, paradoxical cultural diversities become even more pronounced or they have the potential to do so, if the organization of open and distance education programs is appropriately contextualized and negotiated. These cultural foundations of open and distance education can be readily illustrated by reference to international comparisons between Korea and Australia. Korea has a highly valued and competitive higher education system. Much greater geographical distance than in Korea, a lower participation rate in higher education and a generally lower level of technological integration in homes, workplaces and educational institutions are among significant cultural differences between Korea and Australia that in turn frame the two countries’ approach to open and distance higher education.
The paper applies and critiques Pendell’s (1997) elaboration of an intercultural comparative framework derived from Hofstede (1980), Hall(1976) and Samovar and Porter(1995). While Pendell’s comparative framework provides an initially helpful means of identifying cultural differences between Korea and Australia, an intensive examination of specific higher education sites in both countries is necessary to map the cultural diversities underpinning open and distance education in those countries. This argument is illustrated by referring to historical backgrounds, student-lecturer interactions, organization, delivery methodology, support systems, participant expectations and future potentials.

Imaging of A Virtual University: Based on Banathy’s Image-building Model

In-Sook Lee (Sejong University)

Current social systems are extremely unstable and educational systems based on a paradigm in which people learn to prepare for their life during a certain period are no longer effective. People want and need to receive education directly in their workplaces, homes, or near learning centers. Current research discusses the image creation of a virtual university as a new educational system. Above all, it describes the importance of image-building based on stakeholders' shared values and ideas, as a preparation stage before an actual design stage. As a framework for image-building, Banathy’s three dimensional model is introduced. Then, an image of a virtual university is introduced as just one example. This image has been created based on the current researcher's values and ideas, by applying Banathy's framework.

Internet-Based Distance Education: Annotated Bibliography

Insung Jung (Korea National Open University)

This paper attempts to provide an annotated bibliography of the articles on Internet-based distance education and training that have been published in refereed international journals between 1997 and 1999 in the fields of distance education and educational technology. The articles are organized in study themes delineated from an existing distance education theory called the “transactional distance theory”.

Not many studies investigated the pedagogical processes employed in Internet-based education in a rigorous manner, that is, what was really happening in the teaching and learning processes of Internet-based education and why it happened were seldom the focus of the studies. Rather, the effective design, the encouragement of interaction, and the effects on learner satisfaction and perceived learning outcomes were most often examined. In general, there was little linkage to established pedagogical theory in general or to distance education theory in particular. Furthermore, no attempt has been made to develop a theoretical framework of Internet-based education in order to understand its pedagogical feature in a logical way.

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