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제9권 1호 (2008년)
작성자 관리자 등록일 2013-08-22 21:25:15 조회수 7,388
 The Balancing Act of Action and Learning: A Systematic Review of the Action Learning Literature

Yonjoo CHO (Texas A&M University)

Despite considerable commitment to the application of action learning as an organization development intervention, no identified systematic investigation of action learning practices has been reported. Based on a systematic literature review, the purpose of this paper is to identify whether researchers strike a balance between action and learning in their studies of action learning. Research findings in this study included: (1) only 32 empirical studies were found from the electronic database search; (2) based on the hypothesized continuum of Revans’ original proposition of balancing action and learning, the author categorized 32 studies into three groups: action-oriented, learning-oriented, and balanced action learning; (3) there were only nine studies on balanced action learning among 32 empirical studies, whose insights included an effective use of project teams, applications of action learning for organization development, and key success factors such as time, reflection, and management support; (4) case study was among the most frequently used research method and only six quality studies met key methodological traits; and (5) therefore, more rigorous empirical research employing quantitative methods as well as case studies is needed to determine
whether researchers strike a balance between action and learning in studies on action learning.

Perceptions of Students Going to Online School: A Case Study of an American Online School

Soonkyoung YOUN (Seoul National University)

The purpose of this study is to investigate online school students’ understanding of going to online school and their recognitions of the differences between online schools and brick and mortar schools/homeschool. A qualitative research was conducted with an 8th grade teacher and sixteen 8th grade students at an American online school. The findings of this study can be an important first step toward an in-depth understanding of online school learning environments.

A Study of Establishing a Web Model of Historical and Geographical Information for Youths through ‘Collective Intelligence’ -Junior Maphistory e-encyclopedia

Mi-Hyang BANG (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology)

As clearly suggested in the case of Wikipedia, collective intelligence is predicted to develop into the most important platform of knowledge and information in the future society. But it just remains at the level of activities for group projects in the present frame of education and so it doesn’t lead to creating collective intelligence.
This study looks into an ‘information repository model of collective intelligence’ that makes it possible to deliver an education process a priori of Shared Knowledge Reservoir to “Junior Digital Nomad”, who is definitely and will be in existence, and that further enables them to be active there in reality. Based on this storage model, it suggests a practicable web system model; Junior Maphistory e-encyclopedia, which is appropriately consistent with the features of Web 2.0 and can grow into a general historical and geographical information service.

Analogical Transfer: Sequence and Connection

Mi-Ra LIM (Ajou University)

The issue of connection between entities has a lengthy history in educational research, especially since it provides the necessary bridge between base and target in analogical transfer. Recently, the connection has been viewed through the application of technology to bridge between sequences in order to be cognitively useful. This study reports the effect of sequence type (AT vs. TA) and connection type (fading vs. popping) on the achievement and analogical transfer in a multimedia application. In the current research, 10th –grade and 11th –grade
biology students in Korea were randomly assigned to five groups to test the effects of presentation sequence and entity connection type on analogical transfer. Consistent with previous studies, sequence type has a significant effect: analogical transfer performance was better when base representations were presented first followed by target representations rather than the reverse order. This is probably because presenting a familiar base first helps in understanding a less familiar target. However, no fully significant differences were found with the entity connection types (fading vs. popping) in analogical transfer. According to the
Markman and Gentner’s (2005) spatial model, analogy in a space is influenced only by the differences between concepts, not by distance in space. Thus connection types fail on the basis of this spatial model in analogical transfer test. The findings and their implications for sequence and connection research and practice are discussed. Leveraging on the analogical learning process, specific implications for scaffolding learning processes and the development of adaptive expertise are drawn.

The Influence of SGRs on Self, Peer, and Instructor Evaluation in Higher Education

Seongyoun HONG (Seoul National University)

This research has three purposes: The first purpose is to verify whether SGRs(Student-Generated Rubrics) are effective for learner achievement in higher education or not. The second one is to analyze the agreements between an instructor's evaluations and peer group assessments with SGRs in real classroom situation. The final purpose is to propose the possibility of students’ more objective self-evaluation with the use of SGRs. It appears that rubrics are effective tools to improve learner achievement in adult education and to promote the agreement between the instructor's and peer's evaluations, even though learners do not
develop SGRs. In addition, this research has demonstrated that most students are not very accurate self-assessors, and they often overestimate themselves. This study can be helpful for novice instructors, especially for those who try to assess their students more fairly, to develop the SGRs as an evaluation tool appropriate for their own situation, and to give more reliable feedback to students.

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