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제8권 1호 (2007년)
작성자 관리자 등록일 2013-08-22 21:23:47 조회수 5,110
 Human Visual Intelligence and the New Territory of Educational Technology Research

Ilju RHA (Seoul National University)

The general aim of this article is to explicate what can be researched in our field based on the new understanding on the ability of human visual intelligence. To follow this aim, three key discussions were followed. The first is to explain why the human visual intelligence research is so important in our field and how it was neglected. The basic orientations of the research questions used in its framing and in answering are reviewed. After reviewing traditional research orientations, as the second discussion, alternative, more useful perspective for thinking about human visual intelligence is suggested. And the possibility of contribution for the future research in general is discussed. In doing so, human visual intelligence was defined in rather practically oriented ways rather than theoretically oriented ones. More practical perspectives were suggested. The third discussion is to show how to use the alternative perspectives of human visual intelligence in the areas of educational technology research. It was hoped that the article lays out conceptual groundwork for generation of educational technology research frameworks which can be used for the research conduct, reproduction and sharing by adopting practically oriented views on human visual intelligence as a new territory of educational technology research.

Relationships among Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Learning Organization Culture in One Korean Private Organization

Taejo LIM (Samsung Human Resource Development Center)

The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships among organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and learning organization culture. This study was conducted in five sub-organizations of one Korean conglomerate company. One thousand employees were randomly and proportionately selected, with 669 useable cases obtained, for a response rate of 67%. The organizational commitment instrument used from the “affective, continuance, and normative commitment” scale (ACNCS) of Allen and Meyer (1990). The “Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire” of Watkins and Marsick (1997) was used to measure learning organization culture. The short form MSQ (Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire), developed by Weiss, Dawis, England, and Lofquist (1967), was the third instrument used. Descriptive statistics, correlational statistics, and inferential statistics (ANOVA and t-tests) were used. Organizational commitment (except for continuance) is moderately and positively related to job satisfaction and moderately and positively related to learning organization culture. In addition, learning organization culture is weakly to moderately and positively related to job satisfaction. No differences by age were found. Four-year college graduates are more likely to have higher creating continuous learning opportunities in learning organization culture than graduate school degree holders. Males are likely to have higher affective and continuance organizational commitment than females. Employees working in R&D, Engineering, and Manufacturing (REM) are likely to have higher continuance organizational commitment than do other types of jobs. Employees are more likely to have higher learning organization culture and job satisfaction than assistant managers. Assistant managers have higher continuance organizational commitment than managers. Managers generally have higher organizational commitment, learning organization culture, job satisfaction than assistant managers. They also have higher learning organization culture than employees. Employees who had worked for less than four years in their current job and organization have higher promoting inquiry and dialogue in learning organization culture than those who have worked for ten years or more. Employees in the insurance organization have higher affective organizational commitment, learning organization culture, and job satisfaction than those of the other organizations. Finally, employees of the electronic company have higher continuance organizational commitment in learning organization culture than those of other companies. In summary, this research enables CEOs and HRD and HRM practitioners to view organizational commitment, learning organization culture, and job satisfaction as important variables in exploring diverse ranges of topics related to the workplace. And then, they can diversely apply their management, interventions and practices to fit these diverse characteristics.

A Case Study of Applying Performance Technology to Diagnose and Improve Skill Education Systems

Sang Soo LEE (Pusan National University)

This study used the performance technology model of Robinson and Robinson to diagnose and solve the problems of the “N” organization. The performance relationship map of the “N” organization was constructed based on the results of the benchmarking, surveys, interviews, and participatory observations. According to the results of analysis, the research team suggested several interventions in three areas: textbooks, educational methods, and educational environments. The study concluded that performance technology is a very effective way to see performance problems from a holistic viewpoint and solve the problems scientifically based on this case study.

An Instructional Design for International Collaborative Learning Focusing on Communication

Makoto KAGETO (Nihon Fukushi University)

The advantages of the Internet enable teachers in the world to break the communication barriers between their schools and collaborate with each other, giving them opportunities for richer educational practices than ever accomplished. I assume that collaborative learning like an international exchange naturally lead the students to acquire the knowledge to communicate with their peers using ICT skills. In this paper, two international exchange projects that have years of practice are reported, i.e., new types of collaborative education projects that the development of the Internet has enabled us to carry out. The international exchanges reported here have been possible because both students and teachers have effectively used the various functions of the Internet. To use English as a "common international communication language" is particularly important for the youth in Asia, and the students have come to realize the importance of English as a communication language through these projects. Also, since these practices are based on the infrastructure of the Internet, they have elucidated what kind of Internet use produces richer educational results .At the final stage of the exchanges, "joint presentation in English" is designed. Students communicate and collaborate over the network, and finally meet with each other and try to give a presentation as a product of their collaborative work. The files and scenes of their presentations are stored on the network and used as educational materials in Asia as well as models for the activities in the following years. We will report how to design international exchange education in this Internet age.

Blended e-Learning Strategies for Effective Teaching in Traditional Universities

Hye-Jung LEE (Seoul National University)
In-Su KIM (Seoul National University)

The purpose of this study was to suggest instructional strategies applicable to Blended e-Learning. After examining how traditional universities utilized e-learning, it is attempted to have an interview with three working-level people and seven instructors, who widely applied e-learning to their classes. As a result, it is found that the instructors had some wrong understanding of e-learning, and their wrong perception was rooted in their lack of experience of providing e-learning and their reliance on fragmentary, superficial information. It deterred them from putting e-learning into active practice. Besides, it's additionally attempted to describe how blended e-learning could respectively be applied to different types of lectures, how to improve its social presence and how it could be used for evaluation.

Implementation of a Technology-Enhanced Problem-Based Learning Curriculum: Supporting Teachers’ Efforts

Sung Hee PARK (Ewha Womans University)
Peggy A. ERTMER (Purdue University)

This paper describes the experiences of three middle school teachers during the year following a two-week summer workshop in which they were introduced to a technology-enhanced problem-based learning (PBL) pedagogy. Based on their collaborative experiences during the school year, developing and implementing a PBL unit, the three teachers increased their confidence in using technology and indicated shifts in their pedagogical beliefs regarding classroom instruction. Results suggest that administrative support, collaboration with other teachers, and the development of a school culture that valued the sharing of teachers’ experiences were keys to teachers’ successful implementation.

Blended Instructional Practices in Higher Education Institutions

Eunjoo OH (Pusan National University)

The purpose of this study was to investigate current practices in blended instruction. In particular, the study explored (1) the types of instructional delivery methods, technologies, and instructional components, (2) the reasons why faculty apply blend instruction, and (3) the advantages and challenges in delivering blended instruction. This study focused on the practices in the Universities that have the extensive doctoral research programs classified by the Carnegie Foundations. The survey was performed with the sample of faculty from 30 universities and the survey data included 133 faculties out of the total 1,000 randomly selected faculty members. Of the 133 responses, 111 (77.7%) participants had certain degree of experience, while 17 faculty (or instructors) (13.3%) did not have any practice with blended instruction. The most common instructional delivery format in the participating universities was blended instruction that added supplementary online instructional components in the class. Online Course Management Systems (CMS) and multimedia presentation tools were common technology for course delivery, and “discussion” was the most general instructional activity for the class. The participating faculty often preferred the blended format since it provides students and faculty with convenience, flexibility, active engagement, efficiency in using resource materials, and a feeling of connection between/among students and instructor. Benefits to the class were availability of more authentic experience and diverse curricular materials, and the instructional format that meets the needs of remediation and enhancement of students. This study addressed not only advantages and challenges of blended instruction, but also suggestions based on the comments by the participating faculty.

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