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제1권 1호 (1999년)
작성자 관리자 등록일 2013-08-22 19:03:48 조회수 3,726
Motivation in Cyber Learning Environments

John M. Keller (Florida State University)

Although the novelty and potential capability of cyber learning environments attract us, We need to address motivational problems as indicated by low completion rates. This article describes, first, issues associated with motivating students to learn in cyber learning environments. Second, the ARCs model is overviewed as a basis for systematic motivational design. Third, a simplified motivational design is described to help practitioners design attractive cyber learning environment. Finally, two recent developments are introduced: one is ‘motivationally-adaptive CAI’, the other is ‘use of motivational messages in distance education’.

The introduction and its meanings of new curriculum for information technology – education from primary to senior high school in japan.

Toshio Okmoto (Univ of Electro-Communications)

By a rapid development of information and communication technologies, people have been able to communicate each other from far sites. So, the next networked society gives birth to new paradigm of education. This paper describes the comprehensive curriculum and school infrastructure of information technology-education(IT-education). The importance of IT-education was already acknowledged in 1987 renewal of the official course of study at school. The nationwide school curriculum at that time was “distributive one”, and each subject involved an allocation of curriculum unit handling “IT-education”. It is called “Cross Curriculum”. However, it is noteworthy that “Informatics based thinking/viewpoints” and “system science based thinking/viewpoints” are not applied in school subjects in the course of study at school. It is necessary to set IT-education as “Informatics for all”. Moreover, there is an urgent necessity of making traditional subjects and this new education united as “comprehensive curriculum”. JSET(Joint Society and Educational Technology) research-working group on developing curriculum of IT-education suggests a new plan of school course of study, compiling requirements, significance, and demands concerning IT-education, which is becoming increasingly important in highly technological society. The contents of the report are summarized in this paper. On drafting this report, we tried to investigate and discuss what kind of rationale for IT-education is essential to construct its curriculum. As the result of it, we proposed the well-balanced and integrated curriculum among knowledge and literary on Information Technology, knowledge on each existential subject and thinking skills based on System Science.

Present and Future of Cyber Education in Korea: Suggestion for its promising future based on representative practices.

Youngsoo kim (Ewha Womans University)
Jongyeon lee (Samsung SDS)

At present, most universities and corporations in Korea are running cyber education to meet today’s educational needs. About 30% of them join Pilot Cyber University program initiated by the government. Corporations whose main business area is in information technology are also actively participating in establishing and running cyber universities. In order for cyber universities to play the roles as we expect, there is an urgent need to develop strategies, models and principles in various aspects of cyber universities. It is especially important to set specific and specialized goals and curriculum to be served. It is recommendable to establish support system to develop quality content and to define a new role of the instructor as a facilitator. Information infrastructure should be improved and a consistent software and hardware platform should be distributed to users. On the other hand, the students need to make an effort to have an active attitude toward his or her learning and to master the basic knowledge and skills of information technology. The rules and regulations related to establishing and running cyber universities should be formulated to protect learners from low quality education. When the tasks mentioned above are completed, cyber universities will truly establish itself as a type of higher education institution in the information age beyond our assumption and expectation.

The Systematic Design and Production of Course Materials

Sung-Ho Kwon (Hanyang University)

The rapid establishment of virtual universities in Korea in 1997 and 1998 has resulted in a number of problems. There has been a limited systematic approach to course design or development adopted and no guide or training for virtual instruction. Delivery methods do not have variety, there are no study materials and little interaction between students and instructors. In this paper the author has focused on a guide to develop course materials for virtual instructors who are used to being face-to-face instructors. For the future development of virtual instruction in Korea, the author suggests that systematic technical infrastructure systems must be developed; a support system should be established and developed and a research and development program should be more actively progressed.


Mi-Lee Ahn (Hanyang University)
Wan-Young Ryoo (Hanyang University)

The information technology extended teaching and learning as a powerful means to expand access education at reduced costs. It also shifted the focus of education from “in-class” to “out-of-classroom.” In pursuit of quality distance education through web, it requires new approaches not only in learning and teaching, but also in student assessments. The purpose of this study is to investigate how students are assessed in various types of on-line courses. Specifically, this project identified types of assessments used in (a) Korean and foreign WBI courses and (b) liberal arts, creative arts and science/technology oriented WBI courses. This study found that there were five types of assessments used: Assignments (projects, reports papers), Tests (exams, quizzes), Attendance/Participation, Discussion, and Alternative Methods (portfolio, demonstration, case study).
The results of this study identified serious problems in how we assess student achievements in WBI. Although WBI differs from conventional classroom learning and teaching in many ways, there were no differences in assessment types or in different fields of study. This could be due to lack of information on various types of assessments and how to use them effectively on-line. In the conclusion, we provided practical suggestions and information on how to improve current assessment methods and to encourage use of alternative assessments.

Design Strategies for Developing Web-Based Training Courses in a Korean Corporate Context

Insung Jung (Korea National Open University)
Junghoon Leem (Korea National Open University)

A web-based training can be viewed as an innovative distance education approach for delivering training to audience in different places and/or different time. Related research and case studies show that a virtual training via web provides an opportunity to develop new learning experiences for trainees by managing self-directed learning and sharing information and ideas in a cooperative and collaborative manner.
In this paper, we present design principles and strategies for developing web-based virtual training courses which incorporate social interaction and collaborative learning strategies into self-directed learning environment in a Korean corporate context. Problem-based learning based upon constructivism, resource-based learning related to the inquiry training, self-directed learning as a principle of adult learning, and reflective thinking were identified as main principles for designing and developing web-based virtual training courses.
Applying these design principles and strategies, the development process, products and evaluation results of two web-based virtual training courses based on the Network-Based Instructional Systems Development model(NBISD model), are presented.

Human Performance Technology: A Vehicle for transforming from Training to a Learning Organization for Performance Improvement in the Workplace

Sung Heum Lee (Hanyang University)
James A. Pershing (Indiana University)

The purposes of the paper are to summarize the concepts, theories, and functions of human performance technology (HPT) and learning organization for enhancing performance in organizations, to explain the context, content and criteria used for designing an international training program of instructional and performance technology, and to address the performance improvement issues and transformations necessary to move an organization towards a continuous learning organization. The paper explores the role of the human resource development (HRD) professional in reengineering the traditional training process and discusses how a focus on performance improvement can greatly enhance HRD efforts. With the mind and skill sets of HPT and the philosophy of the learning organization, HRD professionals can begin to focus their energies on performance improvement. Training departments need to shift their focus from main-line training to performance enhancement. Ultimately, in order to create and add value in a high-performance organization, HRD professional will have to make a conscious shift from being agents of skill building and information transfer to being supporters of performance in learning organizations.

Integration of information technology into Higher Education : Do We Have to Be Vitual?

Inn-woo Park (Keimyung University)

The purpose of this article is to propose how to utilize a virtual educational environment in order to enhance learning-teaching activities in formal higher education. Providing these suggestions, this article also answered the question regarding whether the virtual university will eventually replace the traditional campus-based university and become the dominant higher educational institute. Although future higher education will be affected and changed by virtual universities, it is predicted that future higher education still requires a campus equipped with information technologies like a virtual education environment. It is suggested that the virtual university could be used to employ instructional models for better student participation, provide asynchronous learning support, conduct field based learning, and handle large classes. In conclusion, campus-based universities can be more effective and efficient by integrating the virtual university with a view to enhance its campus-based learning and teaching activities by not replacing the traditional ones, and continuing to prosper in the new information age.

Cooperative Learning Approach to Computer-Based Instruction

Mi Shon (Pusan National University)

The purpose of this paper is to explore practical guidelines for classroom use of cooperative learning integrated with a computer-based instruction program and for the design of cooperative computer-based instruction program. Key features of cooperative learning are group rewards, positive interdependence, social modeling, communication skills, and individual accountability. Factors related to successful cooperative computer-based instruction are ability, grouping, interaction patterns, locus of control, , reward structure, on-task behavior, intrinsic motivation, and cognitive process. For computer-based instruction to be effective in cooperative learning situations, developer and teachers must recognize and adapt to the structure of the cooperative environment. The cooperative activities for enhancing computer-based learning involve assigning students to cooperative small groups and giving them the assignment of completing an instructional task in which a computer is to be utilized. Both individual accountability and interdependence factors should be taken seriously to encourage the students using computers and to develop and design instructional programs.

Sociomoral Development in PBL Environments : A Case Study of an Elementary School

Inae Kang (Kyunghee University)

Most PBL programs tend to focus mainly on cognitive development of the learner.
Yet, since PBL emphasizes collaborative and interactive thinking and activities between the teacher and the learner or among peer learner’s ‘sociomorality’ which implies the development of interpersonal relationships emerges as another educational effect of PBL. This case study conducted with children of the first grade in an elementary school during this fall semester, aimed at detecting any development or changes of sociomorality of the children within PBL environments. The findings of this study indicates when PBL is compared with the other non-PBL class and in difference between before the instruction, PBL class showed significant difference in terms of their sociomoral development.

Prescriptions for Formative Research Methodology to Improve the Procedural Instructional Design Theory

YoungHwan Kim (Pusan National University)

This paper describes the major characteristics and arguments on the formative research method, and a set of prescriptions for conducting formative research for procedural instructional design theory. For the major characteristics, there are descriptions to find the similarity and difference between the formative evaluation and formative research. For the major arguments, the issues of objectivity, trustworthiness, and construct validity of formative research. In the part of the prescription, there are fully detailed prescriptions useful to conduct formative research easily and efficiently with examples in order to add more detailed prescription and deeper intuition to Reigeluth and Frick’s paper on formative research.

Women’s Past, Present, and Future in Digital Technology

Min Kyeong Kim (Ewha Womans University)

New information technologies can play a key role in shaping the quality of women’s academic endeavors and in fostering supportive interaction, enabling joint analyses, and providing a tool for producing new products. Therefore this paper sketches out the major problematic areas posed by the new information technologies and highlights issues of concern for women and investigates the effects on technology for understanding the background of “Women and Technology” with providing many examples and debates toward gender issues and suggestions for equity. The essential belief and anticipation underlying this paper is that there should be equity, justice and awareness of existence of difference between female and male in digital technology and electronic communication.

The Relationships Between Nevigational Patterns and Information Processing Styles of Hypermedia Users

Mi jar Lee (KwangJoo National Univ of Education)

The study investigates the relationships between hypermedia users’ information processing styles and navigational patterns. Three aspects of navigational patterns were investigated: (a) navigational depth patterns, (b) navigational path patterns, and (c) navigational method patterns. Information processing styles were measured by the Human Information Processing Survey. The Subjects were 102 undergraduate students. 34 students were selected for each of the left, right, and integrated information processor groups. The subjects interacted with the A.g.i.l.e. TrainerTM program to complete searching tasks. Results of the statistical analyses indicated that : 1. Significant differences were found among groups in navigational depth patterns. 2. There was a significant relationship between information processing styles and navigational path patterns. The right-subjects followed significantly more linear paths than the integrated-subjects. 3. Significant differences were found among groups in navigational method patterns. The left-subjects employed significantly more analytical methods than the right-subjects. In addition, the integrated-subjects used significantly more analytical methods than did the right-subjects. The present study demonstrated that the information processing style seems to play an important role in how an individual interacts with the hypermedia systems.

The effects of self-regulated learning strategy on academic achievement in a computer-networked hypermedia learning environment

Wooyong Eom (Hanyang University)

This study attempts to identify how self-regulated learning strategies that learners already have are related to the effectiveness of learning with a computer-networked hypermedia learning environment. Data from 99 seventh graders participating in social studies classes were analyzed. Results showed that metacognitive and motivational strategies significantly influenced the overall model R2 to predict achievement, and metacognitive strategies showed the highest effect on achievement. The combined strategies of metacognitive, cognitive, and motivational strategies revealed slightly higher effect than those of the combined strategies of metacognitive, cognitive, and self-management strategies. These results are discussed in light of the implications for the instructional design.

An Qualitative Analysis of Individual and Collaborative Reflection

SANG SOO LEE (Pusan National University)

The purpose of this study was to identify the differences between individual and collaborative reflection using a qualitative approach. The subjects were randomly divided into two treatment groups (individual and collaborative reflection). The individual reflection group kept a reflection journal individually. In this case of the collaborative reflection group, they were divided into several small groups and each small group kept a group reflection journal. To analyze the group reflection process, their group reflection activities were tape-recorded. These journals and the transcripts of tape recording were analyzed using a coding scheme. The results manifested that collaborative reflection situation provides more opportunity to elaborate one’s own thinking, to challenge each other’s idea, to negotiate meaning in public, and to do more of a higher level of thinking such as metacognitive thinking rather than individual reflection situation.
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