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제15호 2권 (2014년)
작성자 관리자 등록일 2016-10-04 18:17:35 조회수 5,912
 The Effect of Co-Regulated Learning Activities on the Improvement of Self-Regulated Learning Skills in Collaborative Learning Environments

Dae-Yeoul LEE(USA Purdue University)
Yong-Chil YANG(Andong National University)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of co-regulated learning on the improvement of self-regulated learning skills in collaborative learning environments. One group pretest-posttest design was used in this study. The subjects were 49 undergraduate students who enrolled in ‘'Educational Evaluation’' course. To facilitate students’' co-regulated learning activities, group worksheets were developed. Students performed collaborative tasks in group by using the group worksheets over the 6 weeks. The results showed that the difference between means of the pretest and posttest was no statistically significant. It indicates that co-regulated learning activities did not have a significant effect on the improvement of self-regulated learning skills in collaborative learning environments. However, the results of additional analysis revealed that the difference between means of the pretest and posttest in case of 19 students with low self regulated learning level was statistically significant. On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference between means of the pretest and posttest in case of 19 students with high self-regulated learning level. It is interpreted that co-regulated learning activities positively affected the improvement of self-regulated learning skills of students with low self-regulated learning level.

Keywords : Co-regulated learning, Self-regulated learning, Collaborative learning

Analysis of Online Behavior and Prediction of Learning Performance in Blended Learning Environments

Il-Hyun Jo (Ewha Womans University)
Yeonjeong Park(Ewha Womans University)

Jeonghyun Kim (Ewha Womans University)

Jongwoo Song (Ewha Womans University)

A variety of studies to predict students’' performance have been conducted since educational data such as web-log files traced from Learning Management System (LMS) are increasingly used to analyze students’' learning behaviors. However, it is still challenging to predict students’' learning achievement in blended learning environment where online and offline learning are combined. In higher education, diverse cases of blended learning can be formed from simple use of LMS for administrative purposes to full usages of functions in LMS for online distance learning class. As a result, a generalized model to predict students’' academic success does not fulfill diverse cases of blended learning. This study compares two blended learning classes with each prediction model. The first blended class which involves online discussion-based learning revealed a linear regression model, which explained 70% of the variance in total score through six variables including total log-in time, log-in frequencies, log-in regularities, visits on boards, visits on repositories, and the number of postings. However, the second case, a lecture-based class providing regular basis online lecture notes in Moodle show weaker results from the same linear regression model mainly due to non-linearity of variables. To investigate the non-linear relations between online activities and total score, RF (Random Forest) was utilized. The results indicate that there are different set of important variables for the two distinctive types of blended learning cases. Results suggest that the prediction models and data-mining technique should be based on the considerations of diverse pedagogical characteristics of blended learning classes.

Keywords : Learning Management System, Educational Data Mining, Blended Learning, Prediction, Multiple Regression, Random Forest

Are traditional motivation theories used in face-to-face classes valid in an e-learning environment?: Focusing on the Self-Determination Theory

Mi-Hyang BAGN (Kaist Graduate School of Culture Technology)

This research aims to develop an elementary school English e-learning system based on the Self-determination theory (SDT)’, which is widely applied to traditional face-to-face foreign language classes. The study also attempts to verify whether SDT–a traditional motivational theory that has been applied to face-to-face classes–is effective in an e-Learning environment with students who use this newly developed system. For the purposes of this project, the following three actions were carried out. First, a motivational strategy based on SDT was deduced. In SDT, the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness were introduced as basic psychological needs, and assumed that these three needs provided the natural motivation for learning, growth, and development. Second, an e-Learning system was created based on the deduced motivational strategy. Third, the system was implemented in 115 private tuition academies, and education was provided to 1,400 users for one year across the country. Afterwards, by surveying users, correlation between the role of the three psychological needs in learning English, and also the correlation between each need and motivation were investigated. Research results showed that traditional motivational theories used in face-to-face classes so far were effective in an e-Learning environment.

Keywords : motivation strategy, e-Learning system, self determination theory, elementary English

Examining interaction patterns in online discussion through multiple lenses

Seungyeon HAN (Hanyang Cyber University)

This qualitative study investigated different interaction patterns in an online discussion. The data wascollected from asynchronous discussion occurred in a graduate course. The data analysis methods include inductive analysis and mapping strategy. The results of the study suggest three layers of interaction: response sequences, interaction amongst participants, and concept map of messages. The visualization of response sequences enabled the researcher to discover complex and dynamic interaction patterns amongst participants. The many-to-many communication feature of online discussion does not always enable direct one-on-one interaction between two participants. Rather, one message contributed to multiple threads in the stream of conversation. In terms of interaction amongst participants, the interaction amongst participants, as indicated in the data, the messages also bind each participant and consequently a group(s) of participants together. It appears that the contribution of one message may not only enable a response to one participant, but also connect many participants to each other. The concept map of messages proposes that response sequences and interaction amongst participants can also be viewed between concepts within messages in the discussion. On the surface, the messages posted by individuals are linked by the system in a linear fashion as they are posted. However, the interaction extends to collaborative conversation amongst participants. Ultimately, a conceptual network of interrelated ideas including multiple perspectives is built in asynchronous discussion.

Keywords : online discussion, interaction patterns, discourse analysis

An Exploration of Learning Environmental Factors Affecting Student Cognitive Engagement: Implications for Instructional Design Research

Sunghye Lee (Global Institute for Talented Education, KAIST)

As it was argued that students’cognitive engagement can be, at least in part, modified by individual or learning environmental factors, prior studies have attempted to identify the factors explaining the variability of students’cognitive engagement. This literature review has shown that students’cognitive engagement can be altered by various elements in the learning environment design such as factors related students’perceptions of teaching quality, characteristics of tasks and learning activities, teachers’behaviors during instruction, classroom goal structures, the integration of student oriented learning, action learning, problem-based learning, and constructivist learning, and academic disciplines. Based on the review, this study suggests that more studies are required to focus on understandings how the integration of instructional design principles into courses and the levels of student cognitive engagement in these courses are related. Also, an investigation of direct and indirect effect of learning environments taking into account students’personal factors would provide a more accurate picture of the relationship between learning environmental factors and students’cognitive engagement.

Keywords : Student engagement, Cognitive engagement, Learning environmental factors, Instructional design

A Comparative Analysis of Research Trends in Educational Technology and Learning Sciences through Reviewing of ETR&D and JLS from 2003 to 2012

Fengchao CUI (Korea National University of Education)

Hyeonjin KIM (Korea National University of Education)

Eun-young KIM (Korea National University of Education)

Educational technology (ET) and learning sciences (LS) are two related disciplines that have shared interests in studying technologies for advancing human learning. This study conducted a content analysis of articles published in authoritative academic journals, Educational Technology Research and Development (ETR&D) and Journal of the Learning Sciences (JLS) from 2003 to 2012. By selecting and examining 93 issues with 429 articles during this decade with three analytical frameworks, the purpose of this study is to determine research trends precisely and create a scientific communication and theoretical connections for these two disciplines. The illustrated results indicate the dialogue between these two communities has begun yet accompanied by some certain limitations, whereas, they still need be more cooperative and communicational to move towards further integration, so as to contributeto promoting progressive education, learning theory and practice.

Keywords : Educational Technology, Learning Sciences, Research Trends, Content Analysis
Analysis of Learning Experience on Team-based Technology Design Project of Non-Engineering Students

Insu KIM (Korea National Sport University)

The design project of a technology product provides an opportunity for students to experience the inter-connectedness of academic information and ill-defined real-world problems. This study focuses on non-engineering students’activity and perception through the assistive technology design project. For this purpose, participants engaged in a team based technology design project. Then, a qualitative research approach was adopted, which included reflective journals with 24 undergraduate students majored in Adaptive Physical Education. The analysis identified six factors (knowledge value, social value, reality value, accomplishment value, perspective value, benefit value) of perception and five stages (topic selection, function suggestion, visualization, presentation preparation, and presentation) of activity.

Keywords : team-based project learning, technology design, assistive technology, higher education
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