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제11권 2호 (2010년)
작성자 관리자 등록일 2013-08-22 21:28:51 조회수 6,972
The Effect of Visual and Verbal Scaffoldings on Web-Based Problem Solving Performance

Ilju RHA (Seoul National University)
Soyoung PARK (Seoul National University)

The study aimed to investigate the differential effects of visual and verbal scaffoldings on web-based problem solving performance. A quasi-experiment with 143 high school students in South Korea was administered. Each student’s visualization tendency score was obtained at the beginning of the study. Based on the visualization tendency scores, students were divided into two groups; low and high level visualization tendency groups. Then each group was split in half and randomly assigned to one of the two lessons – one with visual scaffolding and the other with verbal scaffolding. The contents of the two lessons were the same. All students’ performance was measured through an essay assignment for a problem solving at the end of the lesson. The result showed that the visual scaffolding group outperformed the verbal scaffolding group (F=22.54, p<.01), regardless of each student’s visualization tendency level. The effect size was 0.81, indicating high practical significance. There was no statistically significant interaction effect between scaffolding modalities and students’ visualization tendency levels. These findings imply that visual scaffolding is an effective strategy to promote students’ problem solving performance.

Keywords : problem solving, visual scaffolding, visualization, visualization tendency

Toward a Systemic Approach to Quality Assurance in e-Learning: An Ecological Perspective

Insung JUNG (International Christian University)

Challenges brought by applications of advanced technologies in education call for new approaches that can best ensure the provision of quality e-learning experiences. This paper presents an ecological approach as one of such approaches to quality assurance in e-learning that can monitor, assess and improve the effectiveness and the links between the various elements of e-learning. The ecological model for QA in e-learning emphasizes interrelation transactions between elements (e.g. providers, learners, cultures and policies) and systemic integration of those elements, and stresses that all these elements within a QA system play an equal role in maintaining balance of the whole. The model focuses attention both on individual and societal/cultural environmental factors as cornerstones for QA efforts in e-learning. It addresses the importance of QA efforts directed at changing QA transactions from provider-centered to ‘all stakeholder-oriented’, from one-size-fits-all model to ‘globally oriented, locally adaptive model’ and from control framework to ‘culture creation framework’.

Keywords : ecological model, e-learning, quality assurance

Identifying Learner Behaviors, Conflicting and Facilitating Factors in an Online Learning Community

Hyungshin CHOI (Chuncheon National University of Education)
Myunghee KANG (Ewha Womans University)

The purpose of this study is to identify patterns of learner behaviors, conflicting and facilitating factors during collaborative work in an online learning community(OLC). This study further seeks to investigate the difference of learner behaviors between high- and lowperforming groups, and conflicting and facilitating factors. The online postings from four groups(19 students) in the spring semester(study 1) and six groups(24 students) in the fall semester(study 2) were analyzed. A coding scheme was generated based on constant comparison using the qualitative data analysis tool, NVivo. The analysis identified 7 categories of learner behaviors in both studies. Among the seven categories, information seeking and co-construction were most frequently observed in both studies. One evident difference between the high- and low-performing groups was that the high-performing groups revealed more incidents of learner behaviors in both studies. In addition, six categories of conflicting factors and five categories of facilitating factors were emerged in both studies. The inefficiency of work category was one of the most frequently observed categories in both studies. Interestingly, the high-performing groups showed more incidents of conflicting factors than the low-performing groups. This study revealed two different types of conflicting factors and there is a need for different moderating strategies depending on its type. Based on the results of the study, effective design strategies for an OLC to facilitate active learning were suggested.

Keywords : Conflicting factors, Facilitating factors, Online learning community, Learner behaviors

A Study on Development of Group Dynamics-based Debate Instructional Model Using a New Technology

Eunmo SUNG (Seoul National University)
Sunghee JIN (Inha University)
Yoonjung KIM (Seoul National University)

The purpose of this study was to develop an instructional model using new technologies aiming to secure students' learnability and to enhance the public school values in the rural districts. The present study attempts to suggest a practical e-learning instructional and learning model named Group Dynamics- based Debate Instructional Model', which utilizes unique technology environment conditions in most. To develop the model, concepts of group dynamics and debate-based instructional models were reviewed. And in-service teachers in two public schools in a certain rural district were interviewed in order to collect and analyze their needs for a teaching and learning model with which they utilizes unique technology conditions as environment in most. Based on literature review and the need analysis, a group dynamics-based debate instructional model has been suggested in terms of conceptual model. And then expert assessment composing of five in-service teachers from the model schools was implemented twice in order to acquire the suggested model validation, followed by the model validation by a group of experts. Then a revised group dynamics-based debate instructional model has been finally suggested. The group dynamics-based debate instructional model is expected to build up members' affective connection in the process, to generate group value, or collective intelligence, and to establish positive discussion culture. Furthermore, beyond of just utilizing the existing materials, learners are encouraged to develop and collect their own materials and data such as expert's interview, or public news for their argument or refutation. In doing so, learners enhance their learnability as well as accountability, prompting self-directed learning, and establishing appropriate discussion culture resulting in positive learning outcomes.

Keywords : group dynamics, debate instruction, fastel, electronic board, tablet PC

The Effects of Group Composition of Self-Regulation on Project-based Group Performance

Hyeon Woo LEE (Sangmyung University)

Collaborative learning encourages the use of high-level cognitive strategies, critical thinking, and interpersonal relationships. Despite these advantages, most instructors reveal the difficulties of using project-based collaborative learning; a common problem is the failure of the group to work effectively together. Thus, this study attempted to provide practical advice on group composition with self-regulation. In a college course, 31 groups with 129 students were asked to discuss and prepare the final presentation material and present it together as a collaborative work. All students’ self-regulation skills were measured at the beginning of the semester, and the collective self-regulation was computed as an average of the individual scores of each group. The results of regression analysis indicate that the group’s collective self-regulation shows a highly significant positive effect on group performance and satisfaction, as self-regulation predicts individual academic performance. The results also show that there is a significant positive relationship between students’ selfregulation and participation in group work.

Keywords : collaborative learning, group composition, collective self-regulation, group performance

Psychological Distance between Students and Professors in Asynchronous Online Learning, and Its Relationship to Student Achievement & Preference for Online Courses

Jieun LEE (University of Seoul)

Relationships between students’ perception of psychological distance with online professors and their academic learning achievement and their intention to continue online learning were examined. The courses selected for this study are two online courses: 1) ‘English Grammar’ and 2) ‘TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication) Preparation’ offered by a campus-based, medium-sized university. This study employed a mixed-methods approach by conducting a survey as well as one-onone interviews with students. Students who feel psychologically distant with the online professors show significantly lower degree of perceived learning achievement, and higher tendency not to take online courses any more. All the three scales measuring the psychological distance -mutual awareness, connectedness, and availability- with professors turned out to be significantly related with students’ perceived learning achievement. According to the result of the interview data analysis, the student interviewees unanimously said that the university should limit the number of online courses that students can register in a semester to one or two courses. Most students regard low interactivity of online learning as inevitable phenomenon. There is a statistically significant difference in perceived learning achievement between the online preferred group and the offline preferred group. Also, there is a significant difference in connectedness and availability and no significant difference in the degree of mutual awareness between the online and the offline preferred group.

Keywords : asynchronous online learning, student-professor relationship, psychological distance, learning achievement, intention to continue online learning

Case Study of Publishing and Using Open Courseware: Perspectives of Instructors, Students, and an Evaluation Group

Jiwon YOU (Kyungwon University)
Sung Hee PARK (Kyungwon University)

Knowledge can be more meaningful when it is shaped and personalized through interaction with others. Implementation of open learning environments such as open courseware or shared knowledge communities has gradually become more common. A case study which investigated instructors’ experiences and perceptions of publishing and using open courseware in the classroom was conducted at a university in Korea. Responses from participating students and an evaluation group regarding how they perceived open learning environments were also examined. Based on the inductive analysis of the data, this study discusses advantages and challenges of publishing open courseware and collaborative learning environments. Also, practical guidelines for developing reusable learning materials are suggested.

Keywords : open courseware, e-learning, collaborative learning, reusable learning material

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