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제10권 1호 (2009년)
작성자 관리자 등록일 2013-08-22 21:26:47 조회수 7,339
A Quest of Design Principles of Cognitive Artifacts through Case Analysis in e-Learning: A Learner-Centered Perspective

Seong Ik PARK (Seoul National University)
Wan Chul LIM (Seoul National University)

Learners are often posited in a paradoxical situation where they are not fully involved in decision making processes on how to learn, in designing their tools. Cognitive artifacts in elearning are supposed to effectively support learner-centered e-learning. The purpose of the study is to analyze cases of cognitive artifacts and to inquire those design principles for facilitating the learner-centered e-learning. Four research questions are suggested: First, it will be analyzed the characteristics of learners with respect to design of cognitive artifacts for supporting the learner-centered e-learning. Second, characteristics of four cases to design cognitive artifacts in learner-centered e-learning environment are analyzed. Third, it will be suggested the appropriate design principles of cognitive artifacts to facilitating learner-centered learning in e-learning environment. Four cases of cognitive artifacts design in learner-centered e-learning was identified as follows: Wiki software as cognitive artifacts in computer-supported collaborative learning; ‘Play Around Network (PAN)’ as cognitive artifact to monitor learning activities in knowledge community; Knowledge Forum System(KFS) as a cognitive artifact in knowledge building; cognitive artifacts in Courses-as-seeds applied meta-design.
Five design principles are concluded as follows: Promoting externalization of cognitive artifacts to private media; Helping learners to initiate their learning processes; Encouraging learners to make connections with other learners’ knowledge building and their cognitive artifacts; Promoting monitoring of participants' contributions in collaborative knowledge building; Supporting learners to design their cognitive artifacts.

An Analysis of Collaborative Visualization Processing of Text Information for Developing e-Learning Contents

Eunmo SUNG (Seoul National University)

The purpose of this study was to explore procedures and modalities on collaborative visualization processing of text information for developing e-Learning contents. In order to investigate, two research questions were explored: 1) what are procedures on collaborative visualization processing of text information, 2) what kinds of patterns and modalities can be found in each procedure of collaborative visualization of text information. This research method was employed a qualitative research approaches by means of grounded theory. As a result of this research, collaborative visualization processing of text information were emerged six steps: identifying text, analyzing text, exploring visual clues, creating visuals, discussing visuals, elaborating visuals, and creating visuals. Collaborative visualization processing of text information came out the characteristic of systemic and systematic system like spiral sequencing. Also, another result of this study, modalities in collaborative visualization processing of text information was divided two dimensions: individual processing by internal representation, social processing by external representation. This case study suggested that collaborative visualization strategy has full possibility of providing ideal methods for sharing cognitive system or thinking system as using human visual intelligence.

Construction and Validation of a Cognitive Presence Scale for Measuring Online Learners’ Engagement

Myunghee KANG (Ewha Womans University)
Hyungshin CHOI (Ewha Womans University)

Cognitive presence, a sense of “being there” cognitively, has recently been considered as an important indicator for students’ engagement in e-learning. There is, however, no widely accepted scale to measure the level of cognitive presence since most studies have put their effort to set and clarify the conceptual framework with qualitative methodology. This study reviewed existing theories on cognitive presence and related fields extensively and developed a new self-report scale for measuring the conceived level of cognitive presence. The reliability and validity of the scale was tested against 723 undergraduate students in two consecutive studies, 418 in the preliminary and 305 in the follow-up study. Three major constructs to measure the perceived level of cognitive presence were: 1) clear understanding, 2) knowledge construction, and 3) learning management. This paper reports the final results of the two independent studies.

Development of Support Programs for Online University Based on Teacher’s & Learner’s Competency for English Medium Teaching

Sohwa PARK (Seoul National University)
Kyunwon CHANG (Kyungi Unviersity)

Language Capital is one of the most important academic abilities and competencies for new era of globalization worldwide. In Europe and Asia where English is not the native language, it is necessary to encourage higher education to improve language competency from both qualitative and quantitative aspects. In so far as online university concerned, it appears of significance to prepare for globalization from the perspective of cross border education, and it needs to focus on how to design and develop English-medium teaching (EMT) or in other words English mediated instruction(EMI) for both teachers and students. In order to provide supportive programs of English-mediated class for teachers and
students, the study examined and analyzed what abilities are needed for teachers based on DACUUM approach, suggesting teachers' competency as well as strategies for online- EMT. Based on literature review, DACUUM analysis, focus group interview with teachers and students who experienced online EMT, online programs supporting both teachers and students for online EMI were developed. This program expects to play roles of practical guidelines and reference for both teachers and students online in an extension of language capital improvement.

The Role of Contradictions in the Development of Technology-Supported Constructivist Classroom Practices: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Perspective

Jonghwi PARK (McGill University)
Carmen SICILIA (McGill University)
Robert J. BRACEWELL (McGill University)

The notion of contradiction from Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) perspectives is known as an “engine” for the development of human practices because participants attempt to adjust their practices to resolve contractions. This study examines two middle school teachers’ classroom practices from CHAT, focusing on the role of contradictions that emerged between their existing teaching practices and constructivist activities in the development of a student-centered technology-integrated learning environment. Findings indicated that teachers’ awareness and resolution of contradictions played a large role in the development of a technology-supported student-centered learning environment, a culturally more advanced activity system: students displayed greater responsibilities for their learning and were guided to make effective decisions for their learning activity.

Exploring Human Performance Technology (HPT) Models for Knowledge Workers

Hwan Young JANG (The Presidential Commission on National Competitiv)

The purpose of this paper is to review a variety of challenges facing the Human
Performance Technology (HPT) in supporting knowledge workers’ performance, and to explore possible HPT models for knowledge workers. The first section of this paper investigates the core attributes and major models of HPT as a foundation. While HPT has a lot of strengths in terms of systemic, systematic, methodologically eclectic, evidence based, and results oriented approaches, some pitfalls – which could be detected if these principles were mindlessly applied to problem areas – are explored. The second section presents some considerations such as analysis, intervention design, and leadership that HP technologists need to take in order to make HPT a better field of practice for knowledge workers. The author also suggests a tentative diagnostic model and a process model for knowledge
workers, core principles of which are based on systems thinking, in particular Senge’s the fifth discipline and Checkland’s soft systems methodology. The importance of formative evaluations to improve these models is noted as a conclusion.

Effects of Blended-TBL on Students' Self-Regulated Learning

Eunsook PARK (Keimyung University)

The purpose of this research is to develop Blended-TBL(Team Based Learning) model that emphasizes the active participation and teamwork of students in on-off blended learning environment, and apply it into the college course and explore whether selfregulated learning between one group pretest and posttest is different. For this, this research investigated the concept and the characteristics of Team Based Learning, and developed the Blended-TBL Model to apply it into the college course, and finally prove effects of Blended-TBL model on self-regulated learning using Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). The participants in this study were 57 college students. They participated in on-off blended-TBL course for 15weeks. Participants followed the content grounded and the problem solving steps in collaborative team-based learning. This research practiced a quantitative research to find out the statistical difference of the self-regulated learning between pretest and posttest using SPSS. The result revealed that Blended-TBL students improved self-regulated learning including motivation, cognitive, metacognitive, and resource management. Based on this result, this research discussed the effects of Blended-TBL on Self-Regulated Learning and suggested the further study.

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